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Czech Grammar


Simplified Czech Grammar

Czech Cases

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Czech English dictionary with Grammar Function

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Conjugation of Czech verbs Present

Infinitive dělat mluvit
bydlet
telefonovat Irregular
já (I) dělám mluvím
bydlím
telefonuju čtu
ty (you)
one friend
děláš mluvíš
bydlíš
telefonuješ čt
on (he)
ona (she)
dělá mluví
bydlí
telefonuje čte
my (we) děláme mluvíme
bydlíme
telefonujeme čteme
vy (you)
friends or Mr.
děláte mluvíte
bydlíte
telefonujete čtete
oni (they) dělají mluví
bydlí
telefonujou čtou




The main Czech prepositions

Some prepositions have two forms: v and ve.
The second (vocalized) form is used for easy pronunciation:
ve Vídni (in Vienna), ve středu (on Wednesday).

do
always with Genitive

jdu do hospody I go to the pub
jdu do školy I go to school
jdu do parku I go to the park
jedu do Prahy I'm going to Prague
jedu do Česka I'm going to the Czech Republic

v(e)
always with Locative

jsem v hospodě I am in the pub
jsem ve škole I am at school
jsem v parku I am in the park
jsem v Praze I am in Prague
jsem v Česku I am in the Czech Republic


pozor
An exception are the days of the week and the time (accusative):
v neděli on Sunday
ve středu on Wednesday
v jednu hodinu at one o'clock




na
The preposition na is used very often in Czech. Take a look at the examples:

with Accusative

jedu na týden na dovolenou i go on vacation for a week
prášek na praní detergent
jezdit na kole cycling


with accusative (WHERE?)

jdu na pivo, kávu I'm going for beer, coffee
jdu na metro, vlak I'm going to the subway, to the train
jdu na poštu I go to the post office
jedu na Slovensko I'm going to Slovakia


with Locative (WO?)

jsem na poště I am at the post office
jsem na Slovensku I'm in Slovakia



z(e)
always with Genitive

jsem z USA I am from the USA
jsem z Austrálie I'm from Australia
to je ze skla It is made of glass







bez(e)
always with Genitive

bez mléka without milk
beze mne without me

s(e)
always with Instrumental

mluvím s doktorem I'm talking to the doctor
čaj s rumem tea with rum
káva se šlehačkou coffee with whipped cream
se mnou with me







pro
always with Accusative

to je pro doktora this is for the doctor

k(e)
always with Dative

jdu k doktorovi I go to the doctor
jdu ke Karlovi I go to Charles

u
always with Genitive

jsem u doktora I am at the doctor

od
always with Genitive

od pátku do neděle from Friday to Sunday
to je dárek od Petra this is a gift from Petr





o
with Locative (about)

mluvím o doktorovi I'm talking about the doctor


sometimes with Accusative

o rok starší a year older

před(e)
with Instrumental (Time)

před hodinou an hour ago
před rokem a year ago


with Accusative (Where I go?)

jdu před dům I'm going in front of the house


with Instrumental (Where I am?)

jsem před domem I'm in front of the house

za
with Accusative (Time)

za hodinu in an hour
za rok in a year


with Accusative (for)

děkuji za dárek thank you for the gift


mit Accusative (Where I go?)

jdu za dům I go behind the house


mit Instrumental (Where I am?)

jsem za domem I am behind the house




Grammar tool of the Czech Academy of Sciences

Here is an example of an irregular Czech verb.

irregular Czech verb

Here is an example of a Czech noun. The word is displayed in all cases.

declination of Czech noun

Here is an example of a Czech adjective in all cases.

declination of Czech adjective

In the free Grammar tool you can request such tables for almost any Czech word.





Czech personal pronouns in all cases

Nominative ty on ona ono
Genitive 1
bez tebe
ho23
pro něho

bez ní
ho23
pro něho
Dative mi
ke mně
ti
k tobě
mu4
k němu

k ní
mu4
k němu
Accusative 1
pro tebe
ho23
pro něho
ji
pro ni
ho5
Vocative - ty - - -
Locative o mně o tobě o něm o ní o něm
Instrumental mnou tebou jím
s ním

s ní
jím
s ním

Nominative my vy oni, ony, ona
Genitive nás vás jich
bez nich
Dative nám vám jim
k nim
Accusative nás vás je
pro ně
Vocative - vy -
Locative o nás o vás o nich
Instrumental námi vámi jimi
s nimi

Remarks:
1 in written language also mne
2 the long form is jeho
3 in written language also jej, bez / pro něj
4 the long form is jemu
5 in written language also je, pro ně, jej, pro něj




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